Module strutils

This module contains various string utility routines. See the module re for regular expression support. See the module pegs for PEG support. This module is available for the JavaScript target.

Types

CharSet = set[char]
  Source Edit
FloatFormatMode = enum
  ffDefault,                  ## use the shorter floating point notation
  ffDecimal,                  ## use decimal floating point notation
  ffScientific                ## use scientific notation (using ``e`` character)
the different modes of floating point formating   Source Edit
BinaryPrefixMode = enum
  bpIEC, bpColloquial
the different names for binary prefixes   Source Edit

Consts

Whitespace = {' ', '\x09', '\x0B', '\x0D', '\x0A', '\x0C'}
All the characters that count as whitespace.   Source Edit
Letters = {'A'..'Z', 'a'..'z'}
the set of letters   Source Edit
Digits = {'0'..'9'}
the set of digits   Source Edit
HexDigits = {'0'..'9', 'A'..'F', 'a'..'f'}
the set of hexadecimal digits   Source Edit
IdentChars = {'a'..'z', 'A'..'Z', '0'..'9', '_'}
the set of characters an identifier can consist of   Source Edit
IdentStartChars = {'a'..'z', 'A'..'Z', '_'}
the set of characters an identifier can start with   Source Edit
NewLines = {'\x0D', '\x0A'}
the set of characters a newline terminator can start with   Source Edit
AllChars = {'\0'..'\xFF'}

A set with all the possible characters.

Not very useful by its own, you can use it to create inverted sets to make the find() proc find invalid characters in strings. Example:

let invalid = AllChars - Digits
doAssert "01234".find(invalid) == -1
doAssert "01A34".find(invalid) == 2
  Source Edit

Procs

proc isAlphaAscii(c: char): bool {.
noSideEffect, procvar, gcsafe, extern: "nsuIsAlphaAsciiChar", raises: [], tags: []
.}

Checks whether or not c is alphabetical.

This checks a-z, A-Z ASCII characters only.

  Source Edit
proc isAlphaNumeric(c: char): bool {.
noSideEffect, procvar, gcsafe, extern: "nsuIsAlphaNumericChar", raises: [], tags: []
.}

Checks whether or not c is alphanumeric.

This checks a-z, A-Z, 0-9 ASCII characters only.

  Source Edit
proc isDigit(c: char): bool {.
noSideEffect, procvar, gcsafe, extern: "nsuIsDigitChar", raises: [], tags: []
.}

Checks whether or not c is a number.

This checks 0-9 ASCII characters only.

  Source Edit
proc isSpaceAscii(c: char): bool {.
noSideEffect, procvar, gcsafe, extern: "nsuIsSpaceAsciiChar", raises: [], tags: []
.}
Checks whether or not c is a whitespace character.   Source Edit
proc isLowerAscii(c: char): bool {.
noSideEffect, procvar, gcsafe, extern: "nsuIsLowerAsciiChar", raises: [], tags: []
.}

Checks whether or not c is a lower case character.

This checks ASCII characters only.

  Source Edit
proc isUpperAscii(c: char): bool {.
noSideEffect, procvar, gcsafe, extern: "nsuIsUpperAsciiChar", raises: [], tags: []
.}

Checks whether or not c is an upper case character.

This checks ASCII characters only.

  Source Edit
proc isAlphaAscii(s: string): bool {.
noSideEffect, procvar, gcsafe, extern: "nsuIsAlphaAsciiStr", raises: [], tags: []
.}

Checks whether or not s is alphabetical.

This checks a-z, A-Z ASCII characters only. Returns true if all characters in s are alphabetic and there is at least one character in s.

  Source Edit
proc isAlphaNumeric(s: string): bool {.
noSideEffect, procvar, gcsafe, extern: "nsuIsAlphaNumericStr", raises: [], tags: []
.}

Checks whether or not s is alphanumeric.

This checks a-z, A-Z, 0-9 ASCII characters only. Returns true if all characters in s are alpanumeric and there is at least one character in s.

  Source Edit
proc isDigit(s: string): bool {.
noSideEffect, procvar, gcsafe, extern: "nsuIsDigitStr", raises: [], tags: []
.}

Checks whether or not s is a numeric value.

This checks 0-9 ASCII characters only. Returns true if all characters in s are numeric and there is at least one character in s.

  Source Edit
proc isSpaceAscii(s: string): bool {.
noSideEffect, procvar, gcsafe, extern: "nsuIsSpaceAsciiStr", raises: [], tags: []
.}

Checks whether or not s is completely whitespace.

Returns true if all characters in s are whitespace characters and there is at least one character in s.

  Source Edit
proc isLowerAscii(s: string): bool {.
noSideEffect, procvar, gcsafe, extern: "nsuIsLowerAsciiStr", raises: [], tags: []
.}

Checks whether or not s contains all lower case characters.

This checks ASCII characters only. Returns true if all characters in s are lower case and there is at least one character in s.

  Source Edit
proc isUpperAscii(s: string): bool {.
noSideEffect, procvar, gcsafe, extern: "nsuIsUpperAsciiStr", raises: [], tags: []
.}

Checks whether or not s contains all upper case characters.

This checks ASCII characters only. Returns true if all characters in s are upper case and there is at least one character in s.

  Source Edit
proc toLowerAscii(c: char): char {.
noSideEffect, procvar, gcsafe, extern: "nsuToLowerAsciiChar", raises: [], tags: []
.}

Converts c into lower case.

This works only for the letters A-Z. See unicode.toLower for a version that works for any Unicode character.

  Source Edit
proc toLowerAscii(s: string): string {.
noSideEffect, procvar, gcsafe, extern: "nsuToLowerAsciiStr", raises: [], tags: []
.}

Converts s into lower case.

This works only for the letters A-Z. See unicode.toLower for a version that works for any Unicode character.

  Source Edit
proc toUpperAscii(c: char): char {.
noSideEffect, procvar, gcsafe, extern: "nsuToUpperAsciiChar", raises: [], tags: []
.}

Converts c into upper case.

This works only for the letters A-Z. See unicode.toUpper for a version that works for any Unicode character.

  Source Edit
proc toUpperAscii(s: string): string {.
noSideEffect, procvar, gcsafe, extern: "nsuToUpperAsciiStr", raises: [], tags: []
.}

Converts s into upper case.

This works only for the letters A-Z. See unicode.toUpper for a version that works for any Unicode character.

  Source Edit
proc capitalizeAscii(s: string): string {.
noSideEffect, procvar, gcsafe, extern: "nsuCapitalizeAscii", raises: [], tags: []
.}

Converts the first character of s into upper case.

This works only for the letters A-Z.

  Source Edit
proc isSpace(c: char): bool {.
noSideEffect, procvar, gcsafe, deprecated, extern: "nsuIsSpaceChar", raises: [], tags: []
.}

Checks whether or not c is a whitespace character.

Deprecated since version 0.15.0: use isSpaceAscii instead.

  Source Edit
proc isLower(c: char): bool {.
noSideEffect, procvar, gcsafe, deprecated, extern: "nsuIsLowerChar", raises: [], tags: []
.}

Checks whether or not c is a lower case character.

This checks ASCII characters only.

Deprecated since version 0.15.0: use isLowerAscii instead.

  Source Edit
proc isUpper(c: char): bool {.
noSideEffect, procvar, gcsafe, deprecated, extern: "nsuIsUpperChar", raises: [], tags: []
.}

Checks whether or not c is an upper case character.

This checks ASCII characters only.

Deprecated since version 0.15.0: use isUpperAscii instead.

  Source Edit
proc isAlpha(c: char): bool {.
noSideEffect, procvar, gcsafe, deprecated, extern: "nsuIsAlphaChar", raises: [], tags: []
.}

Checks whether or not c is alphabetical.

This checks a-z, A-Z ASCII characters only.

Deprecated since version 0.15.0: use isAlphaAscii instead.

  Source Edit
proc isAlpha(s: string): bool {.
noSideEffect, procvar, gcsafe, deprecated, extern: "nsuIsAlphaStr", raises: [], tags: []
.}

Checks whether or not s is alphabetical.

This checks a-z, A-Z ASCII characters only. Returns true if all characters in s are alphabetic and there is at least one character in s.

Deprecated since version 0.15.0: use isAlphaAscii instead.

  Source Edit
proc isSpace(s: string): bool {.
noSideEffect, procvar, gcsafe, deprecated, extern: "nsuIsSpaceStr", raises: [], tags: []
.}

Checks whether or not s is completely whitespace.

Returns true if all characters in s are whitespace characters and there is at least one character in s.

Deprecated since version 0.15.0: use isSpaceAscii instead.

  Source Edit
proc isLower(s: string): bool {.
noSideEffect, procvar, gcsafe, deprecated, extern: "nsuIsLowerStr", raises: [], tags: []
.}

Checks whether or not s contains all lower case characters.

This checks ASCII characters only. Returns true if all characters in s are lower case and there is at least one character in s.

Deprecated since version 0.15.0: use isLowerAscii instead.

  Source Edit
proc isUpper(s: string): bool {.
noSideEffect, procvar, gcsafe, deprecated, extern: "nsuIsUpperStr", raises: [], tags: []
.}

Checks whether or not s contains all upper case characters.

This checks ASCII characters only. Returns true if all characters in s are upper case and there is at least one character in s.

Deprecated since version 0.15.0: use isUpperAscii instead.

  Source Edit
proc toLower(c: char): char {.
noSideEffect, procvar, gcsafe, deprecated, extern: "nsuToLowerChar", raises: [], tags: []
.}

Converts c into lower case.

This works only for the letters A-Z. See unicode.toLower for a version that works for any Unicode character.

Deprecated since version 0.15.0: use toLowerAscii instead.

  Source Edit
proc toLower(s: string): string {.
noSideEffect, procvar, gcsafe, deprecated, extern: "nsuToLowerStr", raises: [], tags: []
.}

Converts s into lower case.

This works only for the letters A-Z. See unicode.toLower for a version that works for any Unicode character.

Deprecated since version 0.15.0: use toLowerAscii instead.

  Source Edit
proc toUpper(c: char): char {.
noSideEffect, procvar, gcsafe, deprecated, extern: "nsuToUpperChar", raises: [], tags: []
.}

Converts c into upper case.

This works only for the letters A-Z. See unicode.toUpper for a version that works for any Unicode character.

Deprecated since version 0.15.0: use toUpperAscii instead.

  Source Edit
proc toUpper(s: string): string {.
noSideEffect, procvar, gcsafe, deprecated, extern: "nsuToUpperStr", raises: [], tags: []
.}

Converts s into upper case.

This works only for the letters A-Z. See unicode.toUpper for a version that works for any Unicode character.

Deprecated since version 0.15.0: use toUpperAscii instead.

  Source Edit
proc capitalize(s: string): string {.
noSideEffect, procvar, gcsafe, deprecated, extern: "nsuCapitalize", raises: [], tags: []
.}

Converts the first character of s into upper case.

This works only for the letters A-Z.

Deprecated since version 0.15.0: use capitalizeAscii instead.

  Source Edit
proc normalize(s: string): string {.
noSideEffect, procvar, gcsafe, extern: "nsuNormalize", raises: [], tags: []
.}

Normalizes the string s.

That means to convert it to lower case and remove any '_'. This is needed for Nim identifiers for example.

  Source Edit
proc cmpIgnoreCase(a, b: string): int {.
noSideEffect, gcsafe, extern: "nsuCmpIgnoreCase", procvar, raises: [], tags: []
.}
Compares two strings in a case insensitive manner. Returns:

0 iff a == b
< 0 iff a < b
> 0 iff a > b

  Source Edit
proc cmpIgnoreStyle(a, b: string): int {.
noSideEffect, gcsafe, extern: "nsuCmpIgnoreStyle", procvar, raises: [], tags: []
.}
Compares two strings normalized (i.e. case and underscores do not matter). Returns:

0 iff a == b
< 0 iff a < b
> 0 iff a > b

  Source Edit
proc strip(s: string; leading = true; trailing = true; chars: set[char] = Whitespace): string {.
noSideEffect, gcsafe, extern: "nsuStrip", raises: [], tags: []
.}

Strips chars from s and returns the resulting string.

If leading is true, leading chars are stripped. If trailing is true, trailing chars are stripped.

  Source Edit
proc toOctal(c: char): string {.
noSideEffect, gcsafe, extern: "nsuToOctal", raises: [], tags: []
.}

Converts a character c to its octal representation.

The resulting string may not have a leading zero. Its length is always exactly 3.

  Source Edit
proc isNilOrEmpty(s: string): bool {.
noSideEffect, procvar, gcsafe, extern: "nsuIsNilOrEmpty", raises: [], tags: []
.}
Checks if s is nil or empty.   Source Edit
proc isNilOrWhitespace(s: string): bool {.
noSideEffect, procvar, gcsafe, extern: "nsuIsNilOrWhitespace", raises: [], tags: []
.}
Checks if s is nil or consists entirely of whitespace characters.   Source Edit
proc splitWhitespace(s: string): seq[string] {.
noSideEffect, gcsafe, extern: "nsuSplitWhitespace", raises: [], tags: []
.}
The same as the splitWhitespace iterator, but is a proc that returns a sequence of substrings.   Source Edit
proc splitLines(s: string): seq[string] {.
noSideEffect, gcsafe, extern: "nsuSplitLines", raises: [], tags: []
.}
The same as the splitLines iterator, but is a proc that returns a sequence of substrings.   Source Edit
proc countLines(s: string): int {.
noSideEffect, gcsafe, extern: "nsuCountLines", raises: [], tags: []
.}

Returns the number of lines in the string s.

This is the same as len(splitLines(s)), but much more efficient because it doesn't modify the string creating temporal objects. Every character literal newline combination (CR, LF, CR-LF) is supported.

In this context, a line is any string seperated by a newline combination. A line can be an empty string.

  Source Edit
proc split(s: string; seps: set[char] = Whitespace; maxsplit: int = - 1): seq[string] {.
noSideEffect, gcsafe, extern: "nsuSplitCharSet", raises: [], tags: []
.}
The same as the split iterator, but is a proc that returns a sequence of substrings.   Source Edit
proc split(s: string; sep: char; maxsplit: int = - 1): seq[string] {.
noSideEffect, gcsafe, extern: "nsuSplitChar", raises: [], tags: []
.}
The same as the split iterator, but is a proc that returns a sequence of substrings.   Source Edit
proc split(s: string; sep: string; maxsplit: int = - 1): seq[string] {.
noSideEffect, gcsafe, extern: "nsuSplitString", raises: [AssertionError], tags: []
.}

Splits the string s into substrings using a string separator.

Substrings are separated by the string sep. This is a wrapper around the split iterator.

  Source Edit
proc rsplit(s: string; seps: set[char] = Whitespace; maxsplit: int = - 1): seq[string] {.
noSideEffect, gcsafe, extern: "nsuRSplitCharSet", raises: [], tags: []
.}

The same as the rsplit iterator, but is a proc that returns a sequence of substrings.

A possible common use case for rsplit is path manipulation, particularly on systems that don't use a common delimiter.

For example, if a system had # as a delimiter, you could do the following to get the tail of the path:

var tailSplit = rsplit("Root#Object#Method#Index", {'#'}, maxsplit=1)

Results in tailSplit containing:

@["Root#Object#Method", "Index"]
  Source Edit
proc rsplit(s: string; sep: char; maxsplit: int = - 1): seq[string] {.
noSideEffect, gcsafe, extern: "nsuRSplitChar", raises: [], tags: []
.}

The same as the split iterator, but is a proc that returns a sequence of substrings.

A possible common use case for rsplit is path manipulation, particularly on systems that don't use a common delimiter.

For example, if a system had # as a delimiter, you could do the following to get the tail of the path:

var tailSplit = rsplit("Root#Object#Method#Index", '#', maxsplit=1)

Results in tailSplit containing:

@["Root#Object#Method", "Index"]
  Source Edit
proc rsplit(s: string; sep: string; maxsplit: int = - 1): seq[string] {.
noSideEffect, gcsafe, extern: "nsuRSplitString", raises: [], tags: []
.}

The same as the split iterator, but is a proc that returns a sequence of substrings.

A possible common use case for rsplit is path manipulation, particularly on systems that don't use a common delimiter.

For example, if a system had # as a delimiter, you could do the following to get the tail of the path:

var tailSplit = rsplit("Root#Object#Method#Index", "#", maxsplit=1)

Results in tailSplit containing:

@["Root#Object#Method", "Index"]
  Source Edit
proc toHex(x: BiggestInt; len: Positive): string {.
noSideEffect, gcsafe, extern: "nsuToHex", raises: [], tags: []
.}

Converts x to its hexadecimal representation.

The resulting string will be exactly len characters long. No prefix like 0x is generated. x is treated as an unsigned value.

  Source Edit
proc toHex[T](x: T): string
Shortcut for toHex(x, T.sizeOf * 2)   Source Edit
proc intToStr(x: int; minchars: Positive = 1): string {.
noSideEffect, gcsafe, extern: "nsuIntToStr", raises: [], tags: []
.}

Converts x to its decimal representation.

The resulting string will be minimally minchars characters long. This is achieved by adding leading zeros.

  Source Edit
proc parseInt(s: string): int {.
noSideEffect, procvar, gcsafe, extern: "nsuParseInt", raises: [OverflowError, ValueError], tags: []
.}

Parses a decimal integer value contained in s.

If s is not a valid integer, ValueError is raised.

  Source Edit
proc parseBiggestInt(s: string): BiggestInt {.
noSideEffect, procvar, gcsafe, extern: "nsuParseBiggestInt", raises: [ValueError], tags: []
.}

Parses a decimal integer value contained in s.

If s is not a valid integer, ValueError is raised.

  Source Edit
proc parseUInt(s: string): uint {.
noSideEffect, procvar, gcsafe, extern: "nsuParseUInt", raises: [ValueError], tags: []
.}

Parses a decimal unsigned integer value contained in s.

If s is not a valid integer, ValueError is raised.

  Source Edit
proc parseBiggestUInt(s: string): BiggestUInt {.
noSideEffect, procvar, gcsafe, extern: "nsuParseBiggestUInt", raises: [ValueError], tags: []
.}

Parses a decimal unsigned integer value contained in s.

If s is not a valid integer, ValueError is raised.

  Source Edit
proc parseFloat(s: string): float {.
noSideEffect, procvar, gcsafe, extern: "nsuParseFloat", raises: [ValueError], tags: []
.}
Parses a decimal floating point value contained in s. If s is not a valid floating point number, ValueError is raised. NAN, INF, -INF are also supported (case insensitive comparison).   Source Edit
proc parseHexInt(s: string): int {.
noSideEffect, procvar, gcsafe, extern: "nsuParseHexInt", raises: [ValueError], tags: []
.}

Parses a hexadecimal integer value contained in s.

If s is not a valid integer, ValueError is raised. s can have one of the following optional prefixes: 0x, 0X, #. Underscores within s are ignored.

  Source Edit
proc parseBool(s: string): bool {.
raises: [ValueError], tags: []
.}

Parses a value into a bool.

If s is one of the following values: y, yes, true, 1, on, then returns true. If s is one of the following values: n, no, false, 0, off, then returns false. If s is something else a ValueError exception is raised.

  Source Edit
proc parseEnum[T: enum](s: string): T

Parses an enum T.

Raises ValueError for an invalid value in s. The comparison is done in a style insensitive way.

  Source Edit
proc parseEnum[T: enum](s: string; default: T): T

Parses an enum T.

Uses default for an invalid value in s. The comparison is done in a style insensitive way.

  Source Edit
proc repeat(c: char; count: Natural): string {.
noSideEffect, gcsafe, extern: "nsuRepeatChar", raises: [], tags: []
.}
Returns a string of length count consisting only of the character c. You can use this proc to left align strings. Example:
proc tabexpand(indent: int, text: string, tabsize: int = 4) =
  echo '\t'.repeat(indent div tabsize), ' '.repeat(indent mod tabsize),
      text

tabexpand(4, "At four")
tabexpand(5, "At five")
tabexpand(6, "At six")
  Source Edit
proc repeat(s: string; n: Natural): string {.
noSideEffect, gcsafe, extern: "nsuRepeatStr", raises: [], tags: []
.}
Returns String s concatenated n times. Example:
echo "+++ STOP ".repeat(4), "+++"
  Source Edit
proc repeatChar(count: Natural; c: char = ' '): string {.
deprecated, raises: [], tags: []
.}
deprecated: use repeat() or spaces()   Source Edit
proc repeatStr(count: Natural; s: string): string {.
deprecated, raises: [], tags: []
.}
deprecated: use repeat(string, count) or string.repeat(count)   Source Edit
proc align(s: string; count: Natural; padding = ' '): string {.
noSideEffect, gcsafe, extern: "nsuAlignString", raises: [], tags: []
.}

Aligns a string s with padding, so that it is of length count.

padding characters (by default spaces) are added before s resulting in right alignment. If s.len >= count, no spaces are added and s is returned unchanged. If you need to left align a string use the repeatChar proc. Example:

assert align("abc", 4) == " abc"
assert align("a", 0) == "a"
assert align("1232", 6) == "  1232"
assert align("1232", 6, '#') == "##1232"
  Source Edit
proc wordWrap(s: string; maxLineWidth = 80; splitLongWords = true;
             seps: set[char] = Whitespace; newLine = "\x0D\x0A"): string {.
noSideEffect, gcsafe, extern: "nsuWordWrap", raises: [], tags: []
.}
Word wraps s.   Source Edit
proc indent(s: string; count: Natural; padding: string = " "): string {.
noSideEffect, gcsafe, extern: "nsuIndent", raises: [], tags: []
.}

Indents each line in s by count amount of padding.

Note: This does not preserve the new line characters used in s.

  Source Edit
proc unindent(s: string; count: Natural; padding: string = " "): string {.
noSideEffect, gcsafe, extern: "nsuUnindent", raises: [], tags: []
.}

Unindents each line in s by count amount of padding.

Note: This does not preserve the new line characters used in s.

  Source Edit
proc unindent(s: string): string {.
noSideEffect, gcsafe, extern: "nsuUnindentAll", raises: [], tags: []
.}

Removes all indentation composed of whitespace from each line in s.

For example:

const x = """
  Hello
  There
""".unindent()

doAssert x == "Hello\nThere\n"
  Source Edit
proc startsWith(s, prefix: string): bool {.
noSideEffect, gcsafe, extern: "nsuStartsWith", raises: [], tags: []
.}

Returns true iff s starts with prefix.

If prefix == "" true is returned.

  Source Edit
proc startsWith(s: string; prefix: char): bool {.
noSideEffect, inline, raises: [], tags: []
.}
Returns true iff s starts with prefix.   Source Edit
proc endsWith(s, suffix: string): bool {.
noSideEffect, gcsafe, extern: "nsuEndsWith", raises: [], tags: []
.}

Returns true iff s ends with suffix.

If suffix == "" true is returned.

  Source Edit
proc endsWith(s: string; suffix: char): bool {.
noSideEffect, inline, raises: [], tags: []
.}
Returns true iff s ends with suffix.   Source Edit
proc continuesWith(s, substr: string; start: Natural): bool {.
noSideEffect, gcsafe, extern: "nsuContinuesWith", raises: [], tags: []
.}

Returns true iff s continues with substr at position start.

If substr == "" true is returned.

  Source Edit
proc addSep(dest: var string; sep = ", "; startLen: Natural = 0) {.
noSideEffect, inline, raises: [], tags: []
.}

Adds a separator to dest only if its length is bigger than startLen.

A shorthand for:

if dest.len > startLen: add(dest, sep)

This is often useful for generating some code where the items need to be separated by sep. sep is only added if dest is longer than startLen. The following example creates a string describing an array of integers:

var arr = "["
for x in items([2, 3, 5, 7, 11]):
  addSep(arr, startLen=len("["))
  add(arr, $x)
add(arr, "]")
  Source Edit
proc allCharsInSet(s: string; theSet: set[char]): bool {.
raises: [], tags: []
.}
Returns true iff each character of s is in the set theSet.   Source Edit
proc abbrev(s: string; possibilities: openArray[string]): int {.
raises: [], tags: []
.}

Returns the index of the first item in possibilities if not ambiguous.

Returns -1 if no item has been found and -2 if multiple items match.

  Source Edit
proc join(a: openArray[string]; sep: string = ""): string {.
noSideEffect, gcsafe, extern: "nsuJoinSep", raises: [], tags: []
.}
Concatenates all strings in a separating them with sep.   Source Edit
proc join[T: not string](a: openArray[T]; sep: string = ""): string {.
noSideEffect, gcsafe
.}
Converts all elements in a to strings using $ and concatenates them with sep.   Source Edit
proc find(s, sub: string; start: Natural = 0; last: Natural = 0): int {.
noSideEffect, gcsafe, extern: "nsuFindStr", raises: [], tags: []
.}

Searches for sub in s inside range start..`last`. If last is unspecified, it defaults to s.high.

Searching is case-sensitive. If sub is not in s, -1 is returned.

  Source Edit
proc find(s: string; sub: char; start: Natural = 0; last: Natural = 0): int {.
noSideEffect, gcsafe, extern: "nsuFindChar", raises: [], tags: []
.}

Searches for sub in s inside range start..`last`. If last is unspecified, it defaults to s.high.

Searching is case-sensitive. If sub is not in s, -1 is returned.

  Source Edit
proc find(s: string; chars: set[char]; start: Natural = 0; last: Natural = 0): int {.
noSideEffect, gcsafe, extern: "nsuFindCharSet", raises: [], tags: []
.}

Searches for chars in s inside range start..`last`. If last is unspecified, it defaults to s.high.

If s contains none of the characters in chars, -1 is returned.

  Source Edit
proc rfind(s, sub: string; start: int = - 1): int {.
noSideEffect, raises: [], tags: []
.}

Searches for sub in s in reverse, starting at start and going backwards to 0.

Searching is case-sensitive. If sub is not in s, -1 is returned.

  Source Edit
proc rfind(s: string; sub: char; start: int = - 1): int {.
noSideEffect, gcsafe, raises: [], tags: []
.}

Searches for sub in s in reverse starting at position start.

Searching is case-sensitive. If sub is not in s, -1 is returned.

  Source Edit
proc rfind(s: string; chars: set[char]; start: int = - 1): int {.
noSideEffect, raises: [], tags: []
.}

Searches for chars in s in reverse starting at position start.

Searching is case-sensitive. If sub is not in s, -1 is returned.

  Source Edit
proc center(s: string; width: int; fillChar: char = ' '): string {.
noSideEffect, gcsafe, extern: "nsuCenterString", raises: [], tags: []
.}

Return the contents of s centered in a string width long using fillChar as padding.

The original string is returned if width is less than or equal to s.len.

  Source Edit
proc count(s: string; sub: string; overlapping: bool = false): int {.
noSideEffect, gcsafe, extern: "nsuCountString", raises: [], tags: []
.}
Count the occurrences of a substring sub in the string s. Overlapping occurrences of sub only count when overlapping is set to true.   Source Edit
proc count(s: string; sub: char): int {.
noSideEffect, gcsafe, extern: "nsuCountChar", raises: [], tags: []
.}
Count the occurrences of the character sub in the string s.   Source Edit
proc count(s: string; subs: set[char]): int {.
noSideEffect, gcsafe, extern: "nsuCountCharSet", raises: [], tags: []
.}
Count the occurrences of the group of character subs in the string s.   Source Edit
proc quoteIfContainsWhite(s: string): string {.
deprecated, raises: [], tags: []
.}

Returns '"' & s & '"' if s contains a space and does not start with a quote, else returns s.

DEPRECATED as it was confused for shell quoting function. For this application use osproc.quoteShell.

  Source Edit
proc contains(s: string; c: char): bool {.
noSideEffect, raises: [], tags: []
.}
Same as find(s, c) >= 0.   Source Edit
proc contains(s, sub: string): bool {.
noSideEffect, raises: [], tags: []
.}
Same as find(s, sub) >= 0.   Source Edit
proc contains(s: string; chars: set[char]): bool {.
noSideEffect, raises: [], tags: []
.}
Same as find(s, chars) >= 0.   Source Edit
proc replace(s, sub: string; by = ""): string {.
noSideEffect, gcsafe, extern: "nsuReplaceStr", raises: [], tags: []
.}
Replaces sub in s by the string by.   Source Edit
proc replace(s: string; sub, by: char): string {.
noSideEffect, gcsafe, extern: "nsuReplaceChar", raises: [], tags: []
.}

Replaces sub in s by the character by.

Optimized version of replace for characters.

  Source Edit
proc replaceWord(s, sub: string; by = ""): string {.
noSideEffect, gcsafe, extern: "nsuReplaceWord", raises: [], tags: []
.}

Replaces sub in s by the string by.

Each occurrence of sub has to be surrounded by word boundaries (comparable to \\w in regular expressions), otherwise it is not replaced.

  Source Edit
proc multiReplace(s: string; replacements: varargs[(string, string)]): string {.
noSideEffect, raises: [], tags: []
.}

Same as replace, but specialized for doing multiple replacements in a single pass through the input string.

Calling replace multiple times after each other is inefficient and result in too many allocations follwed by immediate deallocations as portions of the string gets replaced. multiReplace performs all replacements in a single pass.

If the resulting string is not longer than the original input string, only a single memory allocation is required.

The order of the replacements does matter. Earlier replacements are preferred over later replacements in the argument list.

  Source Edit
proc delete(s: var string; first, last: int) {.
noSideEffect, gcsafe, extern: "nsuDelete", raises: [], tags: []
.}

Deletes in s the characters at position first .. last.

This modifies s itself, it does not return a copy.

  Source Edit
proc parseOctInt(s: string): int {.
noSideEffect, gcsafe, extern: "nsuParseOctInt", raises: [ValueError], tags: []
.}

Parses an octal integer value contained in s.

If s is not a valid integer, ValueError is raised. s can have one of the following optional prefixes: 0o, 0O. Underscores within s are ignored.

  Source Edit
proc toOct(x: BiggestInt; len: Positive): string {.
noSideEffect, gcsafe, extern: "nsuToOct", raises: [], tags: []
.}

Converts x into its octal representation.

The resulting string is always len characters long. No leading 0o prefix is generated.

  Source Edit
proc toBin(x: BiggestInt; len: Positive): string {.
noSideEffect, gcsafe, extern: "nsuToBin", raises: [], tags: []
.}

Converts x into its binary representation.

The resulting string is always len characters long. No leading 0b prefix is generated.

  Source Edit
proc insertSep(s: string; sep = '_'; digits = 3): string {.
noSideEffect, gcsafe, extern: "nsuInsertSep", raises: [], tags: []
.}

Inserts the separator sep after digits digits from right to left.

Even though the algorithm works with any string s, it is only useful if s contains a number. Example: insertSep("1000000") == "1_000_000"

  Source Edit
proc escape(s: string; prefix = "\""; suffix = "\""): string {.
noSideEffect, gcsafe, extern: "nsuEscape", raises: [], tags: []
.}

Escapes a string s.

This does these operations (at the same time):

  • replaces any \ by \\
  • replaces any ' by \'
  • replaces any " by \"
  • replaces any other character in the set {'\0'..'\31', '\127'..'\255'} by \xHH where HH is its hexadecimal value.

The procedure has been designed so that its output is usable for many different common syntaxes. The resulting string is prefixed with prefix and suffixed with suffix. Both may be empty strings. Note: This is not correct for producing Ansi C code!

  Source Edit
proc unescape(s: string; prefix = "\""; suffix = "\""): string {.
noSideEffect, gcsafe, extern: "nsuUnescape", raises: [ValueError], tags: []
.}

Unescapes a string s.

This complements escape as it performs the opposite operations.

If s does not begin with prefix and end with suffix a ValueError exception will be raised.

  Source Edit
proc validIdentifier(s: string): bool {.
noSideEffect, gcsafe, extern: "nsuValidIdentifier", raises: [], tags: []
.}

Returns true if s is a valid identifier.

A valid identifier starts with a character of the set IdentStartChars and is followed by any number of characters of the set IdentChars.

  Source Edit
proc editDistance(a, b: string): int {.
noSideEffect, gcsafe, extern: "nsuEditDistance", raises: [], tags: []
.}

Returns the edit distance between a and b.

This uses the Levenshtein distance algorithm with only a linear memory overhead. This implementation is highly optimized!

  Source Edit
proc formatBiggestFloat(f: BiggestFloat; format: FloatFormatMode = ffDefault;
                       precision: range[0 .. 32] = 16; decimalSep = '.'): string {.
noSideEffect, gcsafe, extern: "nsu$1", raises: [], tags: []
.}

Converts a floating point value f to a string.

If format == ffDecimal then precision is the number of digits to be printed after the decimal point. If format == ffScientific then precision is the maximum number of significant digits to be printed. precision's default value is the maximum number of meaningful digits after the decimal point for Nim's biggestFloat type.

If precision == 0, it tries to format it nicely.

  Source Edit
proc formatFloat(f: float; format: FloatFormatMode = ffDefault;
                precision: range[0 .. 32] = 16; decimalSep = '.'): string {.
noSideEffect, gcsafe, extern: "nsu$1", raises: [], tags: []
.}

Converts a floating point value f to a string.

If format == ffDecimal then precision is the number of digits to be printed after the decimal point. If format == ffScientific then precision is the maximum number of significant digits to be printed. precision's default value is the maximum number of meaningful digits after the decimal point for Nim's float type.

If precision == 0, it tries to format it nicely.

  Source Edit
proc trimZeros(x: var string) {.
noSideEffect, raises: [], tags: []
.}
Trim trailing zeros from a formatted floating point value (x). Modifies the passed value.   Source Edit
proc formatSize(bytes: int64; decimalSep = '.'; prefix = bpIEC; includeSpace = false): string {.
noSideEffect, raises: [], tags: []
.}

Rounds and formats bytes.

By default, uses the IEC/ISO standard binary prefixes, so 1024 will be formatted as 1KiB. Set prefix to bpColloquial to use the colloquial names from the SI standard (e.g. k for 1000 being reused as 1024).

includeSpace can be set to true to include the (SI preferred) space between the number and the unit (e.g. 1 KiB).

Examples:

formatSize((1'i64 shl 31) + (300'i64 shl 20)) == "2.293GiB"
formatSize((2.234*1024*1024).int) == "2.234MiB"
formatSize(4096, includeSpace=true) == "4 KiB"
formatSize(4096, prefix=bpColloquial, includeSpace=true) == "4 kB"
formatSize(4096) == "4KiB"
formatSize(5_378_934, prefix=bpColloquial, decimalSep=',') == "5,13MB"
  Source Edit
proc formatEng(f: BiggestFloat; precision: range[0 .. 32] = 10; trim: bool = true;
              siPrefix: bool = false; unit: string = nil; decimalSep = '.'): string {.
noSideEffect, raises: [], tags: []
.}

Converts a floating point value f to a string using engineering notation.

Numbers in of the range -1000.0<f<1000.0 will be formatted without an exponent. Numbers outside of this range will be formatted as a significand in the range -1000.0<f<1000.0 and an exponent that will always be an integer multiple of 3, corresponding with the SI prefix scale k, M, G, T etc for numbers with an absolute value greater than 1 and m, μ, n, p etc for numbers with an absolute value less than 1.

The default configuration (trim=true and precision=10) shows the shortest form that precisely (up to a maximum of 10 decimal places) displays the value. For example, 4.100000 will be displayed as 4.1 (which is mathematically identical) whereas 4.1000003 will be displayed as 4.1000003.

If trim is set to true, trailing zeros will be removed; if false, the number of digits specified by precision will always be shown.

precision can be used to set the number of digits to be shown after the decimal point or (if trim is true) the maximum number of digits to be shown.

formatEng(0, 2, trim=false) == "0.00"
formatEng(0, 2) == "0"
formatEng(0.053, 0) == "53e-3"
formatEng(52731234, 2) == "52.73e6"
formatEng(-52731234, 2) == "-52.73e6"

If siPrefix is set to true, the number will be displayed with the SI prefix corresponding to the exponent. For example 4100 will be displayed as "4.1 k" instead of "4.1e3". Note that u is used for micro- in place of the greek letter mu (μ) as per ISO 2955. Numbers with an absolute value outside of the range 1e-18<f<1000e18 (1a<f<1000E) will be displayed with an exponent rather than an SI prefix, regardless of whether siPrefix is true.

If unit is not nil, the provided unit will be appended to the string (with a space as required by the SI standard). This behaviour is slightly different to appending the unit to the result as the location of the space is altered depending on whether there is an exponent.

formatEng(4100, siPrefix=true, unit="V") == "4.1 kV"
formatEng(4.1, siPrefix=true, unit="V") == "4.1 V"
formatEng(4.1, siPrefix=true) == "4.1" # Note lack of space
formatEng(4100, siPrefix=true) == "4.1 k"
formatEng(4.1, siPrefix=true, unit="") == "4.1 " # Space with unit=""
formatEng(4100, siPrefix=true, unit="") == "4.1 k"
formatEng(4100) == "4.1e3"
formatEng(4100, unit="V") == "4.1e3 V"
formatEng(4100, unit="") == "4.1e3 " # Space with unit=""

decimalSep is used as the decimal separator

  Source Edit
proc addf(s: var string; formatstr: string; a: varargs[string, `$`]) {.
noSideEffect, gcsafe, extern: "nsuAddf", raises: [ValueError], tags: []
.}
The same as add(s, formatstr % a), but more efficient.   Source Edit
proc `%`(formatstr: string; a: openArray[string]): string {.
noSideEffect, gcsafe, extern: "nsuFormatOpenArray", raises: [ValueError], tags: []
.}

Interpolates a format string with the values from a.

The substitution operator performs string substitutions in formatstr and returns a modified formatstr. This is often called string interpolation.

This is best explained by an example:

"$1 eats $2." % ["The cat", "fish"]

Results in:

"The cat eats fish."

The substitution variables (the thing after the $) are enumerated from 1 to a.len. To produce a verbatim $, use $$. The notation $# can be used to refer to the next substitution variable:

"$# eats $#." % ["The cat", "fish"]

Substitution variables can also be words (that is [A-Za-z_]+[A-Za-z0-9_]*) in which case the arguments in a with even indices are keys and with odd indices are the corresponding values. An example:

"$animal eats $food." % ["animal", "The cat", "food", "fish"]

Results in:

"The cat eats fish."

The variables are compared with cmpIgnoreStyle. ValueError is raised if an ill-formed format string has been passed to the % operator.

  Source Edit
proc `%`(formatstr, a: string): string {.
noSideEffect, gcsafe, extern: "nsuFormatSingleElem", raises: [ValueError], tags: []
.}
This is the same as formatstr % [a].   Source Edit
proc format(formatstr: string; a: varargs[string, `$`]): string {.
noSideEffect, gcsafe, extern: "nsuFormatVarargs", raises: [ValueError], tags: []
.}
This is the same as formatstr % a except that it supports auto stringification.   Source Edit
proc removeSuffix(s: var string; chars: set[char] = Newlines) {.
gcsafe, extern: "nsuRemoveSuffixCharSet", raises: [], tags: []
.}
Removes the first matching character from the string (in-place) given a set of characters. If the set of characters is only equal to Newlines then it will remove both the newline and return feed. .. code-block:: nim

var
userInput = "Hello World!rn" otherInput = "Hello!?!"

userInput.removeSuffix userInput == "Hello World!" userInput.removeSuffix({'!', '?'}) userInput == "Hello World" otherInput.removeSuffix({'!', '?'}) otherInput == "Hello!?"

  Source Edit
proc removeSuffix(s: var string; c: char) {.
gcsafe, extern: "nsuRemoveSuffixChar", raises: [], tags: []
.}
Removes a single character (in-place) from a string. .. code-block:: nim

var
table = "users"

table.removeSuffix('s') table == "user"

  Source Edit
proc removeSuffix(s: var string; suffix: string) {.
gcsafe, extern: "nsuRemoveSuffixString", raises: [], tags: []
.}
Remove the first matching suffix (in-place) from a string. .. code-block:: nim

var
answers = "yeses"

answers.removeSuffix("es") answers == "yes"

  Source Edit

Iterators

iterator split(s: string; seps: set[char] = Whitespace; maxsplit: int = - 1): string {.
raises: [], tags: []
.}

Splits the string s into substrings using a group of separators.

Substrings are separated by a substring containing only seps.

for word in split("this\lis an\texample"):
  writeLine(stdout, word)

...generates this output:

"this"
"is"
"an"
"example"

And the following code:

for word in split("this:is;an$example", {';', ':', '$'}):
  writeLine(stdout, word)

...produces the same output as the first example. The code:

let date = "2012-11-20T22:08:08.398990"
let separators = {' ', '-', ':', 'T'}
for number in split(date, separators):
  writeLine(stdout, number)

...results in:

"2012"
"11"
"20"
"22"
"08"
"08.398990"
  Source Edit
iterator splitWhitespace(s: string): string {.
raises: [], tags: []
.}
Splits at whitespace.   Source Edit
iterator split(s: string; sep: char; maxsplit: int = - 1): string {.
raises: [], tags: []
.}

Splits the string s into substrings using a single separator.

Substrings are separated by the character sep. The code:

for word in split(";;this;is;an;;example;;;", ';'):
  writeLine(stdout, word)

Results in:

""
""
"this"
"is"
"an"
""
"example"
""
""
""
  Source Edit
iterator split(s: string; sep: string; maxsplit: int = - 1): string {.
raises: [], tags: []
.}

Splits the string s into substrings using a string separator.

Substrings are separated by the string sep. The code:

for word in split("thisDATAisDATAcorrupted", "DATA"):
  writeLine(stdout, word)

Results in:

"this"
"is"
"corrupted"
  Source Edit
iterator rsplit(s: string; seps: set[char] = Whitespace; maxsplit: int = - 1): string {.
raises: [], tags: []
.}
Splits the string s into substrings from the right using a string separator. Works exactly the same as split iterator except in reverse order.
for piece in "foo bar".rsplit(WhiteSpace):
  echo piece

Results in:

"bar"
"foo"

Substrings are separated from the right by the set of chars seps

  Source Edit
iterator rsplit(s: string; sep: char; maxsplit: int = - 1): string {.
raises: [], tags: []
.}
Splits the string s into substrings from the right using a string separator. Works exactly the same as split iterator except in reverse order.
for piece in "foo:bar".rsplit(':'):
  echo piece

Results in:

"bar"
"foo"

Substrings are separated from the right by the char sep

  Source Edit
iterator rsplit(s: string; sep: string; maxsplit: int = - 1; keepSeparators: bool = false): string {.
raises: [], tags: []
.}
Splits the string s into substrings from the right using a string separator. Works exactly the same as split iterator except in reverse order.
for piece in "foothebar".rsplit("the"):
  echo piece

Results in:

"bar"
"foo"

Substrings are separated from the right by the string sep

  Source Edit
iterator splitLines(s: string): string {.
raises: [], tags: []
.}

Splits the string s into its containing lines.

Every character literal newline combination (CR, LF, CR-LF) is supported. The result strings contain no trailing \n.

Example:

for line in splitLines("\nthis\nis\nan\n\nexample\n"):
  writeLine(stdout, line)

Results in:

""
"this"
"is"
"an"
""
"example"
""
  Source Edit
iterator tokenize(s: string; seps: set[char] = Whitespace): tuple[token: string,
    isSep: bool] {.
raises: [], tags: []
.}

Tokenizes the string s into substrings.

Substrings are separated by a substring containing only seps. Examples:

for word in tokenize("  this is an  example  "):
  writeLine(stdout, word)

Results in:

("  ", true)
("this", false)
(" ", true)
("is", false)
(" ", true)
("an", false)
("  ", true)
("example", false)
("  ", true)
  Source Edit

Templates

template spaces(n: Natural): string
Returns a String with n space characters. You can use this proc to left align strings. Example:
let
  width = 15
  text1 = "Hello user!"
  text2 = "This is a very long string"
echo text1 & spaces(max(0, width - text1.len)) & "|"
echo text2 & spaces(max(0, width - text2.len)) & "|"
  Source Edit